Anyone can make up lies about anything and make it appear very credible. Validating if something is fake or not requires multiple first hand witness reports and even this we have seen cannot be deemed credible. These witnesses can be frauds or actors and it might not be possible to distinguish if they are faking it or not.
In the past when their was a void in some part of society, many pretenders would arise and claim to be so and so’s long lost brother or sister or daughter to financially gain from the situation. This was also present with the process of appointing the next king or emperor. Historically the catholic church has made a killing milking people of their money and time from a belief that if they did not follow through, they would go to the fiery lava pits of hell when they died.
Fake news becomes especially deadly when it plays on our interest to see things more clearly. People want to believe that the world is black and white. People want to believe that they are fighting evil. If you position fake news to reward people in this way, it becomes especially believable.
Today, we are in the age of advanced CGI techniques and the ability for computers and Hollywood to fabricate almost anything and make it look completely real. In 1938, the famous War of the Worlds broadcast highlighted how vulnerable we are to fake news that is well put together and seemingly true.
Most recently the Hawaii event that was texted to natives of a ballistic missile attack also highlighted the risk of fake news (especially when provided by a seemingly official source).
Recently there has been an increasing trend of groups using sexual abuse accusations to attempt to smear the reputation a particular person. This type of technique has likely been used many times throughout history and it still has sway over people.
If we are fooled by the least well put together fake, we need to be extra concerned of all the lies and fakes that have been orchestrated well enough and have passed without being noticed.
The only real solution to fake news is a scrupulous and sharp mind. Someone that has undergone some form of psychological training to react to news that may not be credible. People can consume as much fake news as you could ask for and still come out fighting as long as they have had enough hands on training to actively respond to situations with logic and reason avoiding fear and chaos.